Everyone dreams of wearing glasses a day to see perfectly without them or without contact lenses. This is not just a dream, given that, today, laser surgery can make things come true. Is it possible treatment alternative for a person whose sight is quite weak, that depends day and night of glasses.
What are the options?
– Lasik is the most commonly used technique and involves cutting a thin portion of the surface of the cornea (flap) but which remains caught one end (like a flap). Gaza will be lifted, will reshape the cornea with a laser and then be reapplied to its original position;
– Procedure Lasik Lasek is similar, only it involves cutting a lot thinner portions of the cornea. It is a good option for people who have thin corneas or those who for one reason or another can not stand the Lasik technique;
– PRK (keratectomie fotoreactiva) involves reshaping a thin layer on the surface of the cornea and then cure it in the correct form. This technique has been found before Lasik technique and is often an option for patients who have low or moderate vision problems;
– LTK is a relatively new procedure used to treat hyperopia and astigmatism. The cornea is reshaped using a laser.
Information about available types of laser eye surgery
– Lasik is the most popular and common laser surgery technique to treat visual disorders. However, there are several different procedures that can be performed by a doctor.
Laser in situ keratomileusis or LASIK is a technique that – in short – the doctor removes a portion of corneal tissue and reshape it improves vision. It is the most widely used technique for surgically treating eye problems used to correct astigmatism, nearsightedness, farsightedness (these two latter with or without astigmatism). During this procedure the doctor will cut a thin portion of the surface of the cornea (corneal flap) but which remains caught one end of it (like a flap). Gaza will be lifted, it will correct the cornea with laser (curve will flatten or, depending on condition) and then will be placed back in position. Healing will be made shortly.
– Epithelial keratomileusis LASEK or laser treatment is another technique to surgically vision problems, similar to Lasik. The difference is that if Lasek procedure the cornea is reshaped much thinner layer. Lasek may be recommended as an alternative to Lasik. Those who have thin corneas, for example, can opt for Lasek. It is considered less invasive and less risky. However, only your doctor will be able to determine the thickness of the cornea and the procedure recommended for each patient. LASEK or Epi-Lasec refer to the same technique. The main disadvantages are listed Lasek procedure: a higher level of discomfort than LASIK and a longer time to heal.
– PRK surgery is a way found before Lasik technique. Although it was once considered the best alternative became less used, while the popularity of Lasik increased continuously. However, it is still available as an option for those who are considering laser surgery for vision problems. People who have minor or moderate refractive errors can opt for PRK. If this technique a thin layer of the cornea is removed (corneal epithelium) without being in any way repositioned (unlike other techniques). Corneal surface where intervention occurred shall apply a kind of “bandage” as a special contact lens. Cornea will need several months to heal, type the view will improve. One of the reasons is preferred at the expense of Lasik PRK is that the healing process is faster and more predictable.
– Automated lamellar keratoplasty or ALK is used in some cases to treat myopia and hyperopia advanced mild to moderate. As with Lasik or Lasek is cut a small portion of the cornea (not remove) and then the doctor uses an instrument called a microkeratome to remove tissue below it. ALK takes less than an hour. However, even this technique began to decline in popularity, as recently discovered procedures offer better results and a higher rate of success and rapid healing.
– LTK or termokeratoplastia laser is a relatively new procedure used to treat hyperopia and astigmatism. Heat supplied by the laser is used to reshape the cornea and decrease without the tissue to be removed. Healing time is much faster than other forms of surgery that corrects refractive eye problems because the procedure is less invasive to the eye. However, the benefits of LTK is not the same as other procedures. In general, about half of the correction effect is lost after two years of operation.
Risks and Complications
What are the risks:
– According to studies, the rate of complications encountered for these surgeries is between 1-5%;
– Possibly surgery has not been properly developed and modified cornea is not enough: in this case unlikely to achieve the desired effect;
– Also, if surgery was not performed correctly and the cornea was cut / shaped too much, the results will be unsatisfactory. These two situations are found, however, about 3% of cases;
– Other symptoms such as vision distorted (wavy lines), floaters (tiny particles moving in the visual field), double vision can occur if the cornea does not heal properly (about 2.6% of patients experience distorted vision).
As can be chosen doctor?
A person can choose ophthalmologist who will make recommendations either through surgery (patients who have already suffered such operations and have had great results) or because of family or medical advice after he informed several sources. Those interested should ask all the questions you would like to get answers about the professionalism and experience ophthalmologist.
What measures will be taken before and after surgery?
– The person will support the operation must be transported safely after the procedure, at home;
– Avoid sports and work for three weeks;
– Do not use make-up and other creams around the eyes for two weeks.
What to do if complications arise?
– Consult your doctor who performed the surgery if you experience pain or unusual symptoms;
– Your doctor will decide if it is necessary to perform another procedure;
– If the patient is the victim of medical negligence or malpractice techniques will be addressed by legal experts to solve the problem.
Anatomy of the eye
Before a person to choose surgery to treat eye problems, it would be useful to know more information about this organ. Laser surgery is not something simple. However, before and learn more about laser surgery would be wise to know a little anatomy of the eye. One of the most important parts of the eye, when it comes to the ability to see, is the cornea. This is the back of it, with which light is concentrated and creates an image on the retina at the back of the eye – which is then sent to the brain and interpreted by it.
The cornea functions as a kind of lens cameras: focuses light to give rise to a clear image. Cornea, as any part of the human body is not always a perfect shape. When a part of the cornea is deformed and refractive errors, to the person concerned will be unclear and would be difficult to focus objects.
There are three types of refractive errors:
– Myopia or blurred vision of distant objects in which are focused more difficult than from short distance from the eye;
– Sightedness is the opposite of myopia: near objects can be seen more clearly than distant;
– Astigmatism occurs when the cornea is irregularly shaped, curved and oval rather than round – which cause vision problems;
– The combination of hyperopia and astigmatism or a combination of myopia and astigmatism are common. With laser surgery, these problems can be treated by reshaping the cornea to correct the refractive imperfections. In this way order will be considerably improved.
Benefits and risks
According to research, about 85% of those who underwent surgery for refractive disorders tratrarea have never depended on glasses or contact lenses. People with a low degree of myopia have seen the most success, although the results were favorable and in those suffering from astigmatism and hyperopia.
However, the results depend on the nature and complexity of visual disturbances but medical professionalism.
Risks and Complications
Any surgical procedure carries a risk, and laser surgery is no exception. Among the negative effects might include:
– Loss of vision – if things do not go according to plan, in case of some patients, after surgery, vision may be poor;
– New visual disturbances – some patients may experience double vision, floaters, halos and may even blind after laser surgery of the eye;
– If operation was not properly made and cornea was too much or too little shaped, complications can occur;
– Dry eye syndrome – many patients have reported this inconvenience after surgery. Although eye drops recommended a short period of time for recovery after surgery are usually able to correct or mitigate the problem, in some cases severe need and other additional drops to prevent dryness of the eye;
– Infections and other complications – when they cut out flap in the cornea, there are the same risks as with other types of operations and there is always the possibility of it becoming infected and not heal properly;
– Reduction results with the passage of time – although technically speaking, it is not a surgical risk, however, it is possible that even if successful operations, the results do not last forever. Cornea continues to change shape once they age a person. And procedures are so new that there is a lot of information in their long-term consequences.
Ophthalmologist will discuss about the risks that it believes may affect your surgery and what would be suitable.
Current procedures should not involve too long (can last less than a minute for each eye). The doctor will put one drop of anesthetic in each eye. A special instrument called a speculum will keep your eyes open. The patient will be asked to focus on one point and try not to move while eye doctor will perform the procedure.
Some patients reported discomfort during surgery laser light, but not pain. Depending on the type of intervention chirgicale possible that during its odor resembling that of burnt hair.
Possible after surgery appear a slight discomfort. Ophthalmologist may suggest the patient to use a mild pain reliever issued on prescription. Most patients will notice an improvement in vision immediately after surgery.
Might appear foreign body sensation in the eye, accompanied by the desire to rub your eyes. Not to do so. It is also possible to install light sensitivity, floaters occur, halos, etc.. These symptoms should diminish within a few days after surgery. Your doctor may recommend that the eye is covered immediately after surgery for several days or even weeks.
– Makeup – two weeks;
– Sports and work – three days;
– Swimming pool, jacuzzi or hot water baths – eight weeks.
In addition it would be advisable not to drive the car at night (for three to six weeks).
When are not the desired results
Many of those using laser surgery to treat disorders of the mind are pleased with the results: 85% of people give the glasses a few days after. However, if you are among the unlucky if unusual or painful symptoms should immediately consult an ophthalmologist.