When the body is infected with a particular pathogen and produce antibodies against it, some white blood cells do not change their shape. If the body is infected with the same pathogen and white blood cells reproduce unchanged from previous infection very quickly, and the pathogen is destroyed.
When the body synthesizes its own antibodies, as often happens after vaccination, the process is known as active immunity. Active immunity persists much longer than passive immunity, sometimes entire life. Induction of active immunity is always preferable to passive whenever possible, because this form of immunity will support long-term health. However, formation of active immunity artificially is a very complicated process. Introduction of foreign antibodies in the body, even controlled, can be dangerous for some people.
However, there are cases in which the body can not produce patient independently, the antibodies necessary to neutralize a specific pathogen. The infected person may be treated by injection of antibodies taken from other people. The process is called passive immunity.
The importance of passive immunity
Passive immunity is formed by transfer factors. Transfer factors are substances taken from a human or animal source, which is believed anumte can provide immunity to diseases. Because transfer factors to provide protection against the disease for those who benefit from transfer source must already have immunity to the disease in question.
Transfer factors are designed to stimulate the human immune system by increasing cell-mediated immunity and stimulating the production of lymphokines. Transfer factors can contribute to the treatment of various diseases and conditions, including chronic fatigue syndrome, shingles, hepatitis and represent an alternative to excessive use of antibiotics.
Passive immunity is a form of immunization that occurs when antibodies are formed when a different pathogens are transferred from one person to another. For some pathogens to stimulate passive immunity, antibodies may be collected and animals.
Passive immunity include the provision of IgG antibodies that protect the body against infection. This form of immunization provides rapid protection against a particular pathogen, but the protection is short-lived: from a few weeks up to 4 months. This type of immunity is usually required patients to be protected urgently a pathogen for which their body is unable to produce antibodies to neutralize the infection.
There exist two types of immunity passive immunity passive immunity passive artificial and natural.
Artificial passive immunity is formed using serum or plasma infusions, who have high levels of antibodies against a particular pathogen. This form of passive immunity provides immediate protection against microorganisms, such as hepatitis A antibodies by administering performance.
Antibodies used in artificial passive immunity were produced by a person or an animal were actively immunized. Passively immunized artificial person benefits from these antibodies (which can not manufacture naturally) only temporarily, as long as antibodies are in circulatory system.
Artificial passive immunity may benefit patients who need immediate protection against diseases and whose lives may be endangered. Artificial passive immunity involves the introduction of antibodies by injecting mijlace. For example, for the treatment of diseases affected people it is administered serum derived from patients who were cured of the same disease, with active immunity (their bodies produce antibodies necessary to neutralize the pathogen alone repsonsabil of onset). This practice is often used when forming an outbreak involving a virus or bacterium nine times that are highly virulent, for which there is no known cure available. In some cases, for example, colostrum is used to produce passive immunity in adults, not children.
Natural passive immunity refers to the process by which antibodies that fight a pathogen are collected and transmitted from a mother to her child. Antibodies can be transferred to the baby via the placenta (where the fetus) or colostrum – the milk produced by the mother that form in the first days after childbirth. Antibodies from the mother provides protection for a few weeks, time enough for the fetus or newborn begins to build its own immune system that produce antibodies against infection.
Passive immunity can also naturally acquired as a result of Transfer of antibodies from the mother’s bloodstream directly through the placenta, after the third month of pregnancy. Neonatal immunity is only temporary and begins to decrease after a few weeks or months after birth.
Breast milk also contains antibodies. This means that babies who are breastfed receive passive immunity for longer periods of time. Milk (colostrum) that is produced in the first days after childbirth is particularly rich in antibodies. It is therefore important that babies be breastfed at the breast. First immunization, which lasts about two months, including immunization against pertussis and Hib (Haemophilius influenza type b). Passive immunization against measles, mumps and rubella lasts about a year.
Prophylactic immunization with antibodies are sometimes given when people are exposed to diseases such as rabies, botulismulul, tetanus and diphtheria. By passive immunization process, the patient can be helped to cure a disease for which his body does not produce antibodies.
Passive immunity is not the same as vaccination – a process in which small amounts are placed in the body of antigens, which are designed to encourage their body to form antibodies, so they can fight off future infections.