Dehydration occurs when the body loses too much fluid. This phenomenon can occur when water intake is stopped or when large amounts of water are removed from the body through diarrhea, vomiting, sweating or exercise.Low water intake can also cause muscle cramps and tiredness. Normally the body absorbs liquid blood or other tissues of the body. But when the body is dehydrated, it can not provide the necessary liquid for the blood to circulate normally in this case the patient can go into shock, a life-threatening condition.
Dehydration can occur at any age but is very serious for infants, children and the elderly.
Dehydration for infants and children
Infants and children are more likely to become dehydrated because:
- A larger portion of their body is occupied by water
- Children have a higher metabolic rate than adults, so children use more water in the body
- Kidneys are not functioning as children and adult kidney, so the kidney to preserve the child as well water
- A child’s immune system that helps fight infections is not fully developed, which increases the chance of getting an illness that causes diarrhea and vomiting
- Children often will not feed and not drinking when they feel bad
- Depend on caregivers to nurture and moisturize.
Dehydration in the elderly
Older adults are more likely to suffer from dehydration because:
- Not drinking because they thirst as strong as in the case of young
- Elderly kidneys do not work as well as those of young
- Not drinking because of incontinence (inability to control the bladder)
- Physical problems or suffering from some diseases:
- Do not allow them to keep a glass of water in hand
- Cause pain when you are out of bed or rising from a chair
- Does not allow the movement of the toilet.
Infants, children and elderly should be monitored closely for worsening of initial symptoms of dehydration, whenever they have problems that cause diarrhea, vomiting or heavy sweating. Early signs of dehydration are:
- Dry mouth and sticky saliva
- Reduce the amount of urine and urine color changes (concentrated urine)
- Fun or very irritable behavior.
If the following symptoms , emergency treatment is needed . Calling an immediate rescue is required . Symptoms consist of this shock and dehydration in children and elderly .
In the early stages it is possible that dehydration should be addressed at home. It is necessary to reduce fluid loss and to replace these losses .
Adults and children over 12 years
If a person becomes dehydrated during mild or moderate exercise or work outdoors :
- Have stopped work for a few minutes of rest
- The person must leave the sun and rest a few minutes in a cool place in the shade
- Surplus clothes should be removed
- Recommend consuming soft drinks such as water , juice or energy drink to replace fluid lost during exercise . It is recommended to consume 2 liters of cold liquid in the following 2-4 hours. Daily liquids to replace lost or removed is about 10 glasses of water
- Rest and hydration are recommended for the next 24 hours . Although the symptoms may disappear after a few hours , a day and a half is needed to replace fluids lost from the body.
Children aged 1 year to 11 years
- It is necessary for parents to ensure that children often consume liquids
- For children oral rehydration is required dehydrated orange juice or mineral water
- Parents should allow children to drink much water considered necessary. They should encourage children to drink plenty of fluids . Children between 4 and 10 years old should drink at least 8 glasses of fluid a day to cover the amount of fluid lost
- Cereals with milk can also help to restore fluid intake .
Infants and children up to one year
No waiting for installation dehydration, we recomand to replace lost fluids . Children must be hydrated to avoid these problems.
- If the baby is breastfed is often necessary to breastfeeding
- If the child is breastfed the bottle also have often tried to breastfeeding
- Is attempted oral rehydration if there is a slight dehydration . The amount of fluid needed depends on the weight of the child and the severity of dehydration
- If the child has started eating cereal necessary liquids can be compensated by grain . The child can eat mashed potatoes or banana if these foods were eaten before.
Symptoms to watch when home treatment
The following tips can be helpful in preventing dehydration:
- Treatment at home promptly if diarrhea, vomiting or fever
- To prevent dehydration during exercise or hot days, it is good to consume 8-10 glasses of fluid per day
- Recommend consuming large amounts of water during and after exercise
- Children should be encouraged to drink fluids. Children between 4 and 10 years old should drink at least 8 glasses of fluid a day to replace fluids consumed
- Do not recommend drinking coffee, juices or other cola drinks contain caffeine. They increase urine output and increase dehydration
- Avoiding hyper-protein regimes. If a person is at a high protein diet, it should consume at least 8 to 12 glasses of fluid daily
- Not recommended alcohol, including beer or wine. They increase dehydration and make it difficult to take the right decisions
- Do not recommend taking salt tablets. Most people have enough salt part of their diets
- Stopping exercise in case of dizziness or fatigue very high
- Recommend wearing light clothes one after another, paler when exercise outdoors.
Not recommended exercise in latex clothes.