Health problems caused by the immune system diseases
Immune diseases resulting either from excessive immune reaction of the body or from an autoimmune attack on the body’s natural defenses and attack normal cells produce a number of disorders.Asthma, Family Mediterranean fever and Crohn’s disease (a group of inflammatory bowel disease) are caused by overreaction of the immune system, while autoimmune polyglandular syndrome or some manifestations of diabetes occurs when the immune system attacks its own cells and molecules.
Immune deficiency diseases decrease the body’s ability to fight invaders and increase vulnerability to infection.
The role of the immune system
Immune system is a complex and developed with a simple mission that to seek and destroy invaders that threaten health. When a person is born with a deficient immune system, lack of the enzyme leads to the accumulation of toxic waste in the immune cells, and finally to death.
Biological processes and structures of the immune system have not only the role of different stakeholders to detect pathogens (from viruses to intestinal parasites), but also to distinguish healthy tissues of the body.
Immune system disorders are autoimmune diseases, inflammatory diseases and cancer. Immunodeficiency occurs when the immune system is not sufficiently active, by setting up recurring infections life threatening. On the other hand, autoimmune diseases are caused by an overactive immune system that attacks its own tissues, mistaking them pathogens. Autoimmune diseases are common Hashimoto thyroiditis, rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes mellitus or systemic lupus erythematosus.
Asthma and Allergies
Asthma is a condition in which the immune system becomes hyperactive in the airways (bronchi). People who suffer from this disease experience periodic episodes of airway constriction (bronchospasm), when the breath is significantly hampered. Most patients diagnosed with asthma shows recurrent inflammation in the airways. Treatment for asthma include inhaled corticosteroids daily, which reduces hyperactivity of the immune system and inflammation caused by it.
Allergies occur as a result of excessive immune reaction in contact with a foreign substance the body itself is not threatening to health. Certain foods, pollen particles and dust mites are the most common allergens. Allergy symptoms are breathing difficulties, eye irritation, rashes, nasal congestion, nausea and vomiting. Avoiding allergens is the best way to control allergies events.
In response to an unknown stimulus , the immune system may begin to produce antibodies that fight infection instead attack the body tissues. Treatment of autoimmune diseases namely by removing immune system activity . The most common of these are
- Diabetes mellitus type 1 . The antibodies attack and destroy cells that produce insulin in the pancreas.
- Inflammatory Bowel Diseases . The immune system attacks the intestinal wall , causing episodes of diarrhea, rectal bleeding , abnormal bowel movements , abdominal cramps , fever and weight loss . Ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease are two major forms of inflammatory bowel disease .
- Rheumatoid Arthritis . Antibodies produced by the immune system attacks the tissues that cover the wrists , appearing inflammation , swelling and pain. Left untreated , rheumatoid arthritis affects the joints permanent .
- Systemic lupus erythematosus . People with lupus produce antibodies that can attack any tissue of the body joints , lungs, blood cells , nerves or kidneys are affected most often . Treatment requires a daily dose of prednisone to reduce immune system activity .
- Multiple sclerosis . In this case, the immune system attacks nerve cells , causing symptoms such as chronic pain, loss of vision, body weakness , coordination, slowed movements or spasms .
- Guillain -Barre Syndrome . The immune system attacks the nerves that control leg muscles , rarely the hands or upper torso . Body weakness is installed , often at very high severity. Filtering blood through a procedure called plasmapheresis is the main treatment for Guillain -Barre syndrome .
- Psoriasis . Overactive immune cells called T cells accumulate in the skin , reproduce rapidly and produce wounds in the skin carcinomas .
- Hashimoto’s thyroiditis . The antibodies attack the thyroid gland , gradually destroying the cells that secrete thyroid hormones .
Immune deficiency disease
The immune system can be affected by certain medications or diseases. Immunodeficiency is often present at birth, due to a hereditary disorders. Some common examples are
- Severe combined immunodeficiency. The genetic cause severe dysfunction in the immune system, babies failing to survive to age 1 year. Marrow transplantation can cure some forms of the disease.
- Common variable immunodeficiency. Amid a congenital defect, the immune system produces too few antibodies to fight infections effectively. Children with this diagnosis suffer frequent infections of the ear, lungs, nose, eyes, etc..
- Human immunodeficiency virus HIV. HIV infects and destroys immune system cells that normally fight off infection. As the number of antibodies decreases vulnerability to infections increases to the point that death may occur.
- Drug-induced immunodeficiency. Drugs that suppress the immune system predispose serious illness caused by infection.
- Graft versus host disease. After a bone marrow transplant, the donor immune cells can attack the tissues of the person receiving the transplant. Prednisone and other immunosuppressive drugs can help the body to accept the host immune cells of the donor.